Our bones and joints support us and allow us to move. They protect our brain, heart, and other organs from injury. Our bones also store minerals such as calcium and phosphorous, which help keep our bones strong, and release them into the body when we need them for other uses.
The deterioration of the body with age renders the elderly particularly susceptible to and affected by poor bone health. Illnesses like osteoporosis, characterized by weakening of the bone’s structural matrix.

There is no one food or nutrient capable of providing adequate bone health on its own. Instead, a balanced diet sufficient in fruits and vegetables for their vitamins, minerals, and alkalinizing substrates is thought to be most beneficial.
The first step is getting all the nutrients you need for proper bone growth. "A healthy diet can significantly reduce the risk of bone loss and osteoporosis.
Calcium is a crucial building block of bone tissue. Vitamin D helps the body absorb and process calcium. Together, these two nutrients are the cornerstone of healthy bones.

The Institute of Medicine recommends 1,000 mg of calcium a day for most adults and 1,200 mg/day for women after menopause and men after 70.

From the mid thirties we start to lose more bone than we grow bone.
There are many things that can increase chances of bone disorders and  are called Risk Factors, some are listed below:

  • Diet- Getting too little calcium can increase your chances of getting osteoporosis and other health disorders. Not getting enough vitamin D can also increase your risk for the disease. Vitamin D is important because it helps the body use the calcium in your diet.
  • Physical activity- Not exercising and not being active for long periods of time can increase your chances of getting bone detoriation. Like muscles, bones become stronger–and stay stronger–with regular exercise.
  • Smoking- Study reveals that smoking reduces the calcium absorption in body, so it can also play an important role in bone disorders.
  • Alcohol- People who drink a lot are more likely to get osteoporosis.
  • Medicines- Certain medicines can cause bone loss. These include a type of medicine called glucocorticoids. Some other medicines that prevent seizures and that treat endometriosis a disease of the uterus, and cancer can cause bone loss, too.
  • Age- Chances of getting osteoporosis increases with growing age.
  • Gender- There is greater chances of getting osteoporosis in case of woman. Women have smaller bones than men and lose bone faster than men do because of hormone changes that happen after menopause.
  • Family history- Having family history that has osteoporosis may also increase risk.

Some of the common bone & joint disorders are as follows:

  • Osteoporosis- It is referred to weak and porous bones that are incapable of maintaining normal bone functions. In vast majority of cases, the disease is progressive but silent until bones get extremely weak and fracture results with tremendous amount of pain and discomfort.
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta- As the name suggests, is a disorder of bones with genetically pattern of inheritance mainly associated with fractures that is from pathology not from any injury or accidents.
  • Paget disease- It is another common musculoskeletal issue that may also involve other systems like hearing. This disorder is characterized by high growth potential of bones that primarily affect long bones of the body. The bones not only increase in size but are also weak and vulnerable to injuries, fractures and dislocations.
  • Osteomalacia/Rickets- Osteomalacia is an acquired condition caused by deficiency of vitamin D in adults and in children is referred to as Rickets. Moderate to severe deficiency of Vitamin D impairs the bone building process, leading to soft and weak bones that may present as:

– Moderate to severe bone pain
– Weakness of muscles
– Changes in normal gait
– Lower muscle tone and impaired grip

  • Fibrous Dysplasia- When fibrous tissue replaces the normal bone, the disorder is referred to as fibrous dysplasia. Any bone can be affected but most common sites are thighbone (femur), shinbone (tibia), humours, pelvic bones, ribs, skull and facial bones.
  • Osteitis Fibrosa Cystic- Hyper-secretion of certain hormones like parathyroid gland leads to excessive resorption of bones leading to osteitis fibrosa cystic bone lesions.
  • Bone Tumours- Bone tumours may develop as primary malignancy or may occur as secondary metastatic lesions. Primary bone tumours may be benign with better prognosis and lesser risk of side effects or malignant with worst prognosis and higher rate of complications. eg. Chondroblastoma is categorized under benign tumours that usually involve terminal ends of long bones like upper limb bones or thigh bones.
  • Arthritis- It is one of the most common conditions in the world. Arthritis literally means joint inflammation. There are two major types: osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Osteoarthritis most commonly affects the hips and knees, but can impact other joints such as the fingers. This condition occurs when the cartilage in the joint begins to break down. The degradation of the cartilage leads to inflammation of the joint and alters the shape of the surrounding bone. The bone thickens and osteophytes, or spurs, may form.

Rheumatoid Arthritis- Like osteoarthritis, it is a chronic, inflammatory disease. In RA small joints are involved. It is considered chronic because the symptoms are long term. Unlike osteoarthritis, it is classified as an autoimmune disease and the exact cause is unknown.
The immune system will attack the tissue that surrounds the joint in addition to connective tissue in other areas of the body. The lining of the joint, called the synovium, becomes inflamed. Once this happens, the synovium will destroy the cartilage in the joint. This alters the shape of the bone and can lead to bone erosion. Also associated with joint warmness, fatigue and fever.

So here is the list of sign and symptoms you can’t ignore:

-Moderate to severe bone pain
-Weakness of muscles
-Changes in normal gait
-Lower muscle tone and impaired grip
-Joint warmness with fatigue and fever
-Stiffness of joints
-Restlessness of extremities