DIABETES / THYROID

The endocrine system is a network of glands that produce and release hormones that help control many important body functions, it influences heart, bones, tissues growth and in pregnancy. It plays a vital role in preventing or developing ailments like diabetes, thyroid disease, growth disorders, sexual dysfunction, and a vast list of other hormone-related disorders.
         Endocrine disease that results when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone, it is also referred as hormone imbalance.
And endocrine diseases due to the development of lesions (such as nodules or tumours) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect hormone levels.
Among all the endocrinal disorders the most common ailments that are affecting people globally are Diabetes and Thyroid disorders.
      In Himachal Pradesh, there is prevalence of common endocrine diseases, such as diabetes, thyroid disease, osteoporosis, vitamin D deficiency, and other metabolic disorders. Endocrinology has been neglected in the state as is evident from the scanty published literature.

DIABETIES
Diabetes is termed for group of diseases that results in too much sugar in blood.
In 2013 it was estimated that over 382 million people throughout the world had diabetes and There are about 50.8 million people with diabetes in India and the number is expected to rise to 70 million by 2025.

It is majorly classified into 3 types:

  • Type 1 Diabetes - the body does not produce insulin. Approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are Type 1.
  • Type 2 Diabetes - the body does not produce enough insulin for proper function. Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are of this type.
  • Gestational diabetes - A form of high blood sugar affecting pregnant women.


The most common symptoms of diabetes include:

frequent urination, intense thirst and hunger, weight gain, unusual weight loss, fatigue, cuts and bruises that do not heal, male sexual dysfunction, numbness and tingling in hands and feet etc.
It is a leading cause of blindness, kidney failure, amputations, heart failure and stroke.

THYROID DISORDERS
Disorders associated with thyroid gland situated in neck. According to the profile of thyroid disorders in North India, 75% hypothyroid, 6% hyperthyroid and 19% euthyroid goiter cases have been reported.

Common symptoms are:

Nervousness and Tremors, Mental fogginess and Poor concentration, Menstrual changes, Palpitations, Weakness, Blotted feeling, Temperature intolerance, Weight gain or loss, Body aches, skin dryness, swelling, hairfall etc.

Thyroid problems includes:

  • Goiter - enlargement of the thyroid gland
  • Hyperthyroidism - when your thyroid gland makes more thyroid hormones than your body needs
  • Hypothyroidism - when your thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormones
  • Thyroid cancer
  • Thyroid nodules - lumps in the thyroid gland
  • Thyroiditis - swelling of the thyroid gland